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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Layer‐specific strain echocardiography may reflect regional myocardial impairment in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Variables HCM (n = 50) Control (n = 30) p value
Age, y 51.2 ± 14.1 49.3 ± 10.8 0.968
Female, n (%) 25 (50.0) 14 (46.7) 0.407
Asymmetric septal hypertrophy 48 (96 %) / /
Apical hypertrophy 2 (4 %) / /
LVOT obstruction 32 (64 %) / /
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 120.3 ± 15.2 119.4 ± 16.9 0.561
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 72.8 ± 10.9 71.7 ± 11.5 0.838
Heart rate, bpm 72.9 ± 11.3 76.9 ± 10.4 0.086
Body surface area, m2 1.69 ± 0.20 1.63 ± 0.31 0.989
Body mass index, kg/ m2 24.8 ± 3.1 23.5 ± 4.3 0.893
Hemoglobin, g/L 135.5 ± 17.4 133.9 ± 19.0 0.865
NT-pro BNP, pg/ml 1059.0 (515.0—2575.0) / /
hs-cTnT, ng/L 22.4 (13.4—45.8) / /
Creatinine, µmol/L 74.1 ± 17.7 72.4 ± 18.6 0.869
β-blocker, n (%) 38 (76) / /
LA diameter, mm 43.8 ± 6.5 31.3 ± 4.7 0.013
LA volume index, ml/ m2 34.6 ± 12.8 25.7 ± 7.1 < 0.001
E/e’ 21.6 ± 8.0 13.6 ± 11.7 0.008
Maximum wall thickness, mm 21.5 (19.8—25.0) 9.1 ± 1.8 < 0.001
LV mass index, g/m2 109.5 ± 35.7 68.5 ± 10.4 < 0.001
Resting LVOT gradient, mmHg 56.0 (9.0—82.0) 7.8 ± 1.6 < 0.001
Systolic anterior motion, n (%) 29 (58) / /
Pulmonary artery, mm 22 (21—25) 20.8 ± 2.3 0.003
PASP, mmHga 33 (26—40) (n = 23) / /
Cardiac output, L/min 6.57 ± 2.40 5.56 ± 1.72 0.022
LVEF, % 72.7 ± 6.1 64.3 ± 6.4 0.084
Chest pain, n (%) 24 (48) / /
Heart failure, n (%) 41 (82) / /
  1. NT-pro BNP: N-terminal propeptide of B-type natriuretic peptide; hs-cTnT: high-sensitive cardiac troponin T; LA: left atrial; LVOT: left ventricular outflow tract; E/e’: ratio of early mitral inflow velocity (E) to early diastolic velocity at the septal mitral annulus (e’); PASP: pulmonary arterial systolic pressure; LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction. The reference values for NT-pro BNP, hs-cTnT, and creatinine are 0–88 pg/ml, 0–14 ng/ml, and 37–110 µmol/L respectively. a: The PASP was estimated using maximal tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient on the continuous-wave Doppler tracing by the modified Bernoulli equation with the addition of right atrial pressure. Right atrial pressure was estimated at 3 mmHg if the inferior vena cava (IVC) was not dilated (≤ 2.1 cm) and there was a 50 % decrease in the diameter during inspiration; it was estimated at 8 mmHg if the IVC was dilated with normal inspiratory collapse and at 15 mmHg if the IVC was dilated and did not collapse with inspiration