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Table 1 Demographic features, preoperative clinical characteristics and echocardiographic variables of patients

From: The role of left atrial strain in patients with functional tricuspid regurgitation before and after annuloplasty: a long-term follow-up study

  Control (n = 20) Patients with MS and functional TR (n = 63) Patients undergoing TVA P value, Control vs. functional TR P value, Group I vs. Group II
Group I (n = 45) Group II (n = 18)
Demographic features
 Age (years) 48.4 ± 9.0 52.6 ± 8.2 52.4 ± 7.4 53.1 ± 10.2 0.06 0.77
 Sex (M/F) 13/7 22/41 12/33 10/8 0.02 0.04
 Weight (kg) 68.8 ± 11.5 63.4 ± 9.9 63.8 ± 10.6 62.2 ± 8.1 0.07 0.55
 Height (cm) 169.9 ± 7.6 166.0 ± 7.8 165.5 ± 7.5 167.2 ± 8.7 0.05 0.44
 BSA (m2) 1.79 ± 0.17 1.70 ± 0.16 1.70 ± 0.16 1.70 ± 0.15 0.06 0.92
 Heart rate (beats/min) 71.0 ± 10.0 80.0 ± 21.0 76.0 ± 15.3 92.1 ± 28.4 0.00 0.03
Preoperative clinical characteristics
 NYHA functional class III-IV 24 (38.1%) 20 (44.4%) 4 (22.2%) 0.15
 Hypertension 3 (0.05%) 1 (2.2%) 2 (11.1%) 0.19
 Atrial fibrillation 51 (80.9%) 35 (77.8%) 16 (88.9%) 0.48
TR severity
 1+ 19 (30.0%) 17 (37.8%) 2 (11.1%)
 1.5+ 16 (25.4%) 10 (22.2%) 6 (33.3%)
 2+ 14 (22.2%) 7 (15.6%) 7 (38.9%)
 2.5+ 3 (4.8%) 2 (4.4%) 1 (5.6%)
 3+ 11 (17.5%) 9 (20%) 2 (11.1%)
TR VCW (mm) 4.24 ± 2.33 4.11 ± 2.51 4.66 ± 1.87 0.41
Suture annuloplasty/Ring annuloplasty 36/27 23/22 13/5 0.13
Conventional echocardiographic variables
 MVA by 2D planimetry (cm2) 0.88 ± 0.15 1.10 ± 0.39 0.82 ± 0.29 0.01
 MVA by PHT (cm2) 0.92 ± 0.38 1.11 ± 0.10 0.86 ± 0.22 0.04
 MV mean gradient (mm Hg) 10.0 ± 4.8 8.9 ± 4.0 12.7 ± 5.7 0.00
 MV peak gradient (mm Hg) 19.4 ± 7.6 19.2 ± 7.9 19.9 ± 6.9 0.74
 TA maximal diameter (cm) 3.39 ± 0.48 3.44 ± 0.46 3.45 ± 0.49 3.42 ± 0.37 0.00 0.83
 TA minimal diameter (cm) 2.86 ± 0.31 3.39 ± 0.39 3.40 ± 0.51 3.37 ± 0.41 0.00 0.82
 PASP (mm Hg) 44.7 ± 22.6 42.0 ± 22.4 51.4 ± 22.4 0.14
 Tricuspid E (cm/s) 56.3 ± 7.6 63.4 ± 19.3 63.7 ± 20.0 62.9 ± 18.0 0.02 0.89
 E’ (cm/s) 11.9 ± 2.2 11.4 ± 2.9 11.1 ± 2.7 11.9 ± 3.3 0.48 0.41
 S′ (cm/s) 12.7 ± 2.0 12.1 ± 2.6 12.3 ± 2.7 11.8 ± 2.3 0.44 0.55
 E/E’ 4.8 ± 0.9 5.8 ± 2.5 5.9 ± 2.3 5.5 ± 2.8 0.06 0.63
 LA-ap (mm) 32.4 ± 2.3 55.5 ± 12.0 55.9 ± 12.9 54.6 ± 9.4 0.00 0.71
 LA maximal volume (mL) 38.0 ± 10.4 202.5 ± 27.3 228.0 ± 27.2 138.7 ± 15.2 0.00 0.03
 LA minimal volume (mL) 12.5 ± 4.7 160.1 ± 23.8 182.4 ± 32.3 104.2 ± 14.4 0.00 0.03
 LAVI (mL/m2) 21.2 ± 5.8 119.7 ± 15.8 134.9 ± 21.4 81.7 ± 8.8 0.00 0.02
 LASV (mL) 25.5 ± 6.7 42.5 ± 4.3 45.6 ± 5.5 34.6 ± 5.2 0.00 0.24
 LAEF (%) 67.5 ± 5.3 24.9 ± 11.9 24.4 ± 1.6 26.1 ± 3.5 0.00 0.60
 LAEI (%) 216.0 ± 52.2 39.0 ± 44.1 34.9 ± 20.3 49.2 ± 18.1 0.00 0.25
 LV end-diastolic volume (mL) 81.9 ± 20.9 87.9 ± 34.7 93.6 ± 38.2 73.7 ± 18.1 0.47 0.01
 LV end-systolic volume (mL) 34.4 ± 11.0 41.7 ± 19.5 44.8 ± 21.2 33.9 ± 11.9 0.04 0.01
 LV EF (%) 58.5 ± 4.7 53.0 ± 8.7 52.6 ± 7.9 53.9 ± 10.5 0.00 0.57
2D-STE variables
 LAS-r (%) 42.5 ± 10.2 7.6 ± 4.0 8.5 ± 4.1 5.4 ± 2.5 0.00 0.00
 LAS-cd (%) −25.9 ± 7.4 −6.8 ± 3.7 −7.5 ± 3.9 −5.1 ± 2.3 0.00 0.02
 LV-PGLS (%) −22.7 ± 3.5 −15.6 ± 4.9 −15.5 ± 4.4 −15.8 ± 6.1 0.00 0.86
  1. MS Mitral stenosis, TR Tricuspid regurgitation, TVA Tricuspid valve annuloplasty, BSA Body surface area, VCW Vena contracta width, MVA Mitral valve area, PHT Pressure half-time, TA Tricuspid annular, PASP Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, LA-ap Left atrial anterior-posterior diameter, LAVI Left atrial maximal volume index, LASV Left atrial stroke volume, LAEF Left atrial emptying fraction, LAEI Left atrial expansion index, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, 2D-STE Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography, LAS-r Left atrial reservoir strain, LAS-cd Left atrial conduit strain, LV-PGLS Left ventricular peak global longitudinal strain