This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Intravascular ultrasound to guide the management of intracoronary thrombus: a Case Report
© Porto et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2004
Received: 20 September 2004
Accepted: 04 October 2004
Published: 04 October 2004
Percutaneous coronary intervention can be associated with distal embolization of thrombotic material causing myocardial necrosis and infarction.
We discuss the role of intravascular imaging to guide the use of a distal protection device by describing the outcome of a young woman presenting with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography demonstrated an isolated minor stenosis in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery with slight haziness beyond the lesion. Intravascular ultrasound confirmed an extensive thrombus overlying a bulky atherosclerotic plaque. A distal filter wire was therefore successfully used to reduce the risk of distal embolization.
The use of intravascular ultrasound in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome may reveal large thrombi that are difficult to image using conventional angiographic techniques. Intravascular ultrasound can therefore be used as a tool to select lesions requiring distal protection.
Keywordsintravascular ultrasound thrombus stent
Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are increasingly treated with an early invasive strategy. During percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) interventionalists have often to deal with thrombus-laden lesions in native coronary vessels. This poses the serious problem of preventing macroscopic and microscopic distal embolization . There have been many recent advances in this field, and new tools are available for shielding the distal microvasculature, including occlusive systems and basket filters. In the very emboli-prone saphenous vein grafts interventions, for example, both techniques have been associated with favourable results [2, 3].
In native vessels cost and efficacy  considerations prompt a careful use of these devices, and a sensible approach could be selecting lesion and patients at high risk of distal embolization. For example, preventing distal embolization is particularly important in young patients presenting with their first coronary event with a large thrombotic burden [5, 6].
Angiography alone is known to underestimate the risk of distal embolization: for example, only overt signs of massive thrombus burden are predictive of no-reflow in myocardial infarction patients treated with primary PCI . Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has the potential to overcome many of the limitations of angiography, including lesion characterization and assessment of plaque rupture and thrombus [8–11], but its use is still restricted.
We present a case of successful prevention of macroscopic distal embolism in a young patient with ACS obtained combining IVUS and distal filter protection.
A 41-year-old lady presented with a short history of cardiac sounding chest pain. She was a smoker, had hypertension and had a strong family history of premature ischaemic heart disease. The ECG showed widespread anterior T wave inversion. Conventional treatment was started immediately for ACS including intravenous nitrates, low molecular weight heparin, aspirin and clopidogrel. The patient remained pain-free following admission and serial biochemistry demonstrated a rise in cardiac troponin I to 24 mmol/l at 24 hours. There was no evidence of Q waves on the ECG and left ventricular function was normal on echocardiography.
No further Troponin I elevation occurred; the patient was discharged home the next day, and remains asymptomatic at two months.
The necessity of preventing distal embolic during PCI is becoming increasing recognised, as traditional angioplasty may be associated with distal myocardial necrosis .
In our case, angiographic appearance was not suggestive of either obstructive coronary disease or a high embolic risk: none of the criteria set up by Yip et al  (cutoff pattern of occlusion, accumulated thrombus > 5 mm proximal to the occlusion, presence of floating thrombus, persistent dye stasis distal to the obstruction, reference lumen diameter of the culprit artery > or = 4 mm, and incomplete obstruction with presence of accumulated thrombus more than three times the reference lumen diameter of culprit artery) was met, and the patient had already received prolonged antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy.
However, we suspected the presence of a significant thrombotic mass, mainly on the clinical grounds of widespread ECG change and Troponin I elevation, and performed IVUS examination. The importance of the IVUS results is clear: the visualization of a lobulated thrombus, loosely attached to an eroded, non-ruptured plaque, prompted us to use distal protection, which in turn may have prevented significant embolism.
IVUS proved also useful in ensuring full coverage of the lesion, resolving the relation of the lesion with the LAD ostium, correctly sizing the stent, and ruling out thrombus or plaque prolapse through stent struts.
We present a case of successful management of an intracoronary thrombus, which was accomplished combining IVUS data and a distal protection device.
IVUS proved invaluable in the diagnosis and treatment of this challenging case. We believe IVUS guidance should be considered for assessing thrombotic burden and embolism potential particularly in young patients with ACS when angiographic data are inconclusive.
- Limbruno U, Micheli A, De Carlo M, Amoroso G, Rossini R, Palagi C, Di Bello V, Petronio AS, Fontanini G, Mariani M: Mechanical prevention of distal embolization during primary angioplasty: safety, feasibility, and impact on myocardial reperfusion. Circulation 2003, 108: 171-6. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000079223.47421.78View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baim DS, Wahr D, George B, Leon MB, Greenberg J, Cutlip DE, Kaya U, Popma JJ, Ho KK, Kuntz RE: Saphenous vein graft Angioplasty Free of Emboli Randomized (SAFER) Trial Investigators. Randomized trial of a distal embolic protection device during percutaneous intervention of saphenous vein aorto-coronary bypass grafts. Circulation 2002, 105: 1285-90. 10.1161/hc1202.105940View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stone GW, Rogers C, Hermiller J, Feldman R, Hall P, Haber R, Masud A, Cambier P, Caputo RP, Turco M, Kovach R, Brodie B, Herrmann HC, Kuntz RE, Popma JJ, Ramee S, Cox DA: FilterWire EX Randomized Evaluation Investigators. Randomized comparison of distal protection with a filter-based catheter and a balloon occlusion and aspiration system during percutaneous intervention of diseased saphenous vein aorto-coronary bypass grafts. Circulation 2003, 108: 548-53. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000080894.51311.0AView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stone GW: Enhanced Myocardial Efficacy and Recovery by Aspiration of Liberalized Debris. Presented at ACC 2004 Date of accession 16/04/2004 [http://www.tctmd.com]Google Scholar
- Choudhury L, Marsh JD: Myocardial infarction in young patients. Am J Med 1999, 107: 254-61. 10.1016/S0002-9343(99)00218-1View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mukherjee D, Hsu A, Moliterno DJ, Lincoff AM, Goormastic M, Topol EJ: Risk factors for premature coronary artery disease and determinants of adverse outcomes after revascularization in patients < or = 40 years old. Am J Cardiol 2003, 92: 1465-7. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.08.062View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yip HK, Chen MC, Chang HW, Hang CL, Hsieh YK, Fang CY, Wu CJ: Angiographic morphologic features of infarct-related arteries and timely reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction: predictors of slow-flow and no-reflow phenomenon. Chest 2002, 122: 1322-32. 10.1378/chest.122.4.1322View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mintz GS, Nissen SE, Anderson WD, Bailey SR, Erbel R, Fitzgerald PJ, Pinto FJ, Rosenfield K, Siegel RJ, Tuzcu EM, Yock PG: American College of Cardiology Clinical Expert Consensus Document on Standards for Acquisition, Measurement and Reporting of Intravascular Ultrasound Studies (IVUS). A report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001, 37: 1478-92. 10.1016/S0735-1097(01)01175-5View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Serrano P, Kross JM, Ligthart JM, Costa MA, Sabate M, de Feyter PJ: Diagnosis of an intracoronary thrombus with intravascular ultrasound. Circulation 2000, 101: E84-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chemarin-Alibelli MJ, Pieraggi MT, Elbaz M, Carrie D, Fourcade J, Puel J, Tobis J: Identification of coronary thrombus after myocardial infarction by intracoronary ultrasound compared with histology of tissues sampled by atherectomy. Am J Cardiol 1996, 77: 344-9. 10.1016/S0002-9149(97)89361-7View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maehara A, Mintz GS, Bui AB, Walter OR, Castagna MT, Canos D, Pichard AD, Satler LF, Waksman R, Suddath WO, Laird JR Jr, Kent KM, Weissman NJ: Morphologic and angiographic features of coronary plaque rupture detected by intravascular ultrasound. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002, 40: 904-10. 10.1016/S0735-1097(02)02047-8View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.