- Case report
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
A case of absent right and persistent left superior vena cava
© Pálinkás et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
Received: 14 November 2005
Accepted: 26 January 2006
Published: 26 January 2006
Background and purpose:
Our case report deals with the importance of detailed echocardiographic examination for differential diagnosis of coronary sinus dilation and development of abnormalities of great thoracic veins.
A 49-year-old man underwent transthoracic echocardiography for atypical chest pain. A dilated coronary sinus was found and venous contrast echocardiography raised the suspicion of absent right and persistent left superior vena cava. Transesophageal echocardiography showed absence of right superior vena cava. The echocardiographic findings were confirmed by upper venous digital subtraction cavography.
combination of agenesia of right SVC and isolated persistent left SVC in adult patients is a very rare abnormality. Both clinicians and sonographers should be alerted to the possible presence of this combined venous anomaly. Transthoracic echocardiograpy – including agitated saline infusion to the antecubital vein – is an important diagnostic tool for accurate diagnosis of this congenital thoracic venous malformation.
The presence of left superior vena cava (SVC) occurs in approximately 0.3% to 0.5% of the general population [1, 2]. In most of patients with left SVC right SVC is present. However very rarely right SVC may be absent and in these cases a persistent left SVC drains the venous blood of both upper extremities and the head into the heart. We present one case of isolated persistent left SVC with absence of right SVC. Our case report deals with the importance of detailed echocardiographic examination for differential diagnosis of coronary sinus dilation and development abnormalities of great thoracic veins.
Additional File 1: Echo contrast in the right atrium via sinus coronaries. (AVI 2 MB)
Additional File 2: Transesophageal clip demonstrating the absence of right vena cava superior. (AVI 2 MB)
Left SVC is a relatively rare congenital venous development anomaly occurring in approximately 0.3% to 0.5% of the general population [1, 2]. It incidence is ten fold higher in patients with congenital heart malformation [2, 3]. During normal cardiac development the left-sided anterior venous cardinal system disappears, leaving only the coronary sinus and a remnant known as the ligament of Marshall. Failure of closure of the left anterior cardinal vein results in persistent left SVC. In vast majority of cases the persistent left SVC drains into the right atrium via an enlarged coronary sinus. On rare occasions, the persistent left SVC enters directly into the left atrium, resulting in partial anomalous systemic venous return . Besides being associated with other congenital heart malformations, the most relevant clinical implication of left SVC is the association with disturbances of cardiac impulse formation and conduction . Persistent left SVC is generally associated with right SVC and very rarely with absent right SVC. In these rare instances both right and left brachiocephalic vein drain into the persistent left SVC at the leftinternal side of the thorax. Bartram et al. reviewed 121 patients with persistent left SVC and absent right SVC . About half of these cases had no other congenital malformations. Most common congenital defects associated with combined great venous malformation were various types of atrial septal defects, endocardial cushion defects and tetralogy of Fallot. Other reported co-existent congenital anomalies were coarctation of aorta, ventricular septal defect, double aortic arch, transposition of great arteries, dextrocardia and asplenia. In our case an echocardiographically detected dilated coronary sinus raised the suspicion of con genital heart malformation. Simple agitated saline bolus injections into the antecubitalveins can add an important clue for differential diagnosis of coronary sinus dilation. When scanning healthy individuals in modified four-chamber view the saline contrast administered thorough both upper extremity vein first appear in the right atrium. The contrast given into the left antecubital vein will first appear in the dilated coronary sinus then in the right atrium, if there is a persistent left SVC that drains to the coronary sinus. In rare cases of right SVC agenesia and persistent left SVC the contrast enters first into the markedly dilated coronary sinus from both brachial vein, as in our case. Transesophageal echocardiographic examination can add further information on possible co-existent congenital heart defects causing coronary sinus dilation and verify agenesia of right SCV . Venous angiography is a widely available and low cost imaging method for definite confirmation of the presented combined venous malformation. Other alternative imaging methods include computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scan [8, 9]. The hemodynamics of patients with agenesia of right SVC and isolated persistent left SVC connected to the right atrium is the same as that of health y individuals, as a result, patients are mostly asymptomatic. However it may cause difficulties and serious complications in central venous catheterization, intracardiac electrode placement or during cardiopulmonary bypass . Detailed and accurate echocardiographic studies may identify this rare combined congenital defect, hence preventing future complications during invasive procedures.
Combination of agenesia of right SVC and isolated persistent left SVC in adult patients is a very rare anomaly. Both clinicians and sonographers should be alerted to the possible presence of this combined vnous anomaly. Transthoracic echocardiograpy – including agitated saline infusion to both antecubital vein – is an important diagnostic tool for accurate diagnosis of this rare congenital thoracic venous malformation.
- Chandra A, Reul GJ: Persistent left superior vena cava. Tex Heart Inst J. 1998, 25: 90-PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Wood PH: Diseases of the heart and circulation. 1956, Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 457-2Google Scholar
- Zellers TM, Hagler DJ, Julsrud PR: Accuracy of two-dimensional echocardiography in diagnosing left superior vena cava. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1989, 2: 132-138.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Soward A, Cate F, Fioretti P, Roelandt J, Serruys PW: An elusive persistent left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium. Cardiology. 1986, 73: 368-371.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Camm AJ, Dymond D, Spurrell RA: Sinus node dysfunction associated with absence of right superior vena cava. Br Heart J. 1979, 41: 504-507.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bartram U, Van Praagh S, Levine JC, Hines M, Bensky AS, Van Praagh R: Absent right superior vena cava in visceroatrial situs solitus. Am J Cardiol. 1997, 80: 175-183. 10.1016/S0002-9149(97)00314-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Konecky N, Freedberg RS, McCauley D, Kronzon I: Absent right and persistent left superior vena cava without other congenital anomaly: a rare combination diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1995, 8: 761-766.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaemmerer H, et al: Unilateral left superior vena cava and absent right superior vena cava: modern imaging diagnosis and clinical relevance. Z Kardiol. 1994, 83: 386-391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Koito H, et al: Three dimensional reconstructed magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosingpersistent left superior vena cava: comparison with magnetic resonance angiography and plain chest radiography. J Cardiol. 1996, 28: 161-170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rusk RA, Bexton RS, McComb JM: Persistent left sided and absent right sided superior vena cava complicating permanent pacemaker insertion. Heart. 1996, 75: 413-View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.